Clem's Baseball home

Stadiums by Class:
What they had in common,
and what set them apart



The stadium thumbnail diagrams on this page are arranged in seven (formerly six) "classes" to facilitate a graphical and descriptive (rather than statistical) comparison of stadiums having like origins. The groupings I have devised are mainly chronological but partly structural and functional, as explained by the "Distinguishing features" text box at the upper right of each section. (Within each class they are in chronological order according to when they first hosted major league games.) Some stadiums don't fit very well into their designated class, as denoted by red outlines around their thumbnail images and pertinent descriptions. Some stadiums have been reclassified, and this page is subject to further revision. For each class of stadiums, there is a table of descriptive comparisons, with categories appropriate to that class. Following each table is a list of generalizations, based mainly on those categories. Estimated distances and compass directions from each stadium to the city center (as the crow flies) are shown for each stadium, and the average distance for each class is given at the top of the lists of generalizations. Distances are rounded up or down to the nearest mile. Each thumbnail diagram is a link to that stadium's page. Several of the thumbnail images below, especially the dual-use (doughnuts / cookie-cutters), are "dynamic," i.e., they change to the football version (or else shift to a closed-roof version, where appropriate) when you roll the mouse over them.


Distinguishing features:
Brick & exposed steel beams; asymmetrical field, conforming to tight street grid.

Early 20th century baseball stadiums


 
a b c d e f g
Baker Bowl Shibe Park * Forbes Field Sportsman's Park * League Park * Comiskey Park * Polo Grounds
Griffith Stadium Fenway Park Tiger Stadium * Crosley Field * Ebbets Field Wrigley Field * Braves Field *

 
Early 20th century stadium comparison
Name Location:
City
miles from center Decks Features Expansions Lights for   night   games Football use Original
cost
Baker Bowl Urban
Philadelphia
3 N 2 Turret, high RF wall; First cantilevered steel structure, long predates the others.   never Eagles 1933-1935  
Shibe Park * Urban
Philadelphia
3 N 2 Tower, high RF wall 1925 1939 Eagles 1940-1957*  
Forbes Field Urban
Pittsburgh
2 E 3 Weird angles, brick & ivy walls, in-play CF backstop 1925, 1938 1940 Steelers 1933-1963*  
Sportsman's Park * Urban
St. Louis
3 NW 2 Covered RF pavilion 1921 1940 Cardinals 1960-1965  
League Park * Urban
Cleveland
2 ENE 2 High RF wall 1920 never    
Comiskey Park * Urban
Chicago
4 S 2 2-deck enclosure, blazing scoreboard 1927 1939 Cardinals 1922-1925, 1929-1959 $550K
Polo Grounds Urban
Harlem, NY
6 NNE 2 Vast foul territory, 2-deck enclosure, deep CF 1923 1940 Giants 1925-1955,
Jets 1960-1963
 
Griffith Stadium Urban
Washington
1 NNE 2 Disjointed grandstand, high RF wall, deep LF 1920, 1922 1941 Redskins 1937-1960  
Fenway Park Urban
Boston
1 W 1.2 Weird angles, high LF wall, deep RCF 1934 1947 Redskins 1933-1936,
Patriots 1963-1968
 
Tiger Stadium * Urban
Detroit
1 W 2.1 2-deck enclosure, bleachers, deep CF 1923, 1937 1948 Lions 1938-1974  
Crosley Field * Urban
Cincinnati
2 NW 2 Slope in LF, short CF, deep RF 1938 1935    
Ebbets Field Downtown
Brooklyn
2 SE 2 Brick/arch exterior, scant foul territory, short RF, high fence 1932 1938   $750K
Wrigley Field * Urban
Chicago
5 NNW 2.1 Scant foul territory, brick & ivy walls, scoreboard 1927, 1938 1988 Bears 1921-1970 $250K
Braves Field * Urban
Boston
2 W 1 Open pavilions, high fences;
remnant still stands, used for soccer, etc.
1928 1946 Braves 1933,
Patriots 1960-1962
$1m

Generalizations:

See notes at the bottom of this page.


Distinguishing features:
Predominant use of concrete, symmetrical field; most also used for pro football.

Modern 20th century baseball stadiums


 
a b c d e f
Yankee Stadium Cleveland Stadium * Milwaukee County Stadium Memorial Stadium * Municipal Stadium * (K.C.) Candlestick Park *
 
Metropolitan Stadium Dodger Stadium Angels Stadium of Anaheim Kauffman Stadium * Guaranteed Rate Field * (Gray = demolished stadiums)

 
Modern 20th century stadium comparison
Name Location: City miles from center Top Decks Features Expansions, renovations Football use Original
cost
Yankee Stadium Urban
Bronx, NY
6 NNE Roof 3 Three decks, roof facade, big bleachers, "Death Valley" in LCF & CF Lights: 1946 1928, 1937, 1976 Giants 1956-1973 $2.3m
Cleveland Stadium * Downtown
Cleveland
0 N Roof 2.1 Enormous; vast area beyond inner fence
Lights: 1939
  Browns 1937-1995 $3m
Milwaukee County Stadium Suburban
Milwaukee
3 W Roof 2.1   1954, 1973 G.B. Packers 1953-1994  
Memorial Stadium * Urban
Baltimore
3 N Open 2.1 Originally designed for FOOTBALL, hence no roof and the large area beyond center field fence. 1965 Colts 1953-1983,
Ravens 1996-1997
 
Municipal Stadium * Urban
Kansas City
2 SE Roof 2   1955 Chiefs 1963-1971  
Candlestick Park * Suburban
San Francisco
5 S Roofette 2.1 Windy, vast foul territory 1972 49ers 1972-  
Metropolitan Stadium Suburban
Bloomington, MN
8 S Open 3 Disjointed design, improvised in phases. 1965 Vikings 1961-1981 $8.5m
Dodger Stadium Urban
Los Angeles
2 N Roofette 4.1 Mountain view, palm trees, zig-zag roofed pavilion      
Angel Stadium * Suburban
Anaheim
2 SE Roofette 3 "Big A" (formerly); boulders, fountain 1980, 1997* Rams 1980-1994 $24m
Kauffman Stadium* Suburban
Kansas City
6 ESE Roofette 2.1 Grass slope, waterfall, tapered 2nd deck      
Guaranteed Rate Field
[U.S. CellularField] *
Urban
Chicago
4 S Roof* 2.2 Steep upper deck (now smaller, with bigger roof), fancy scoreboard 2004   $137m

Generalizations:

See notes at the bottom of this page.


Distinguishing features:
Huge size, oblong fields; generally with no roof.
 

Football stadiums used for baseball (mass rollover effect)


 
a b c d e f g
Memorial Stadium *
1950 / 1954
Memorial Coliseum
1923 / 1958
Exhibition Stadium
1959 / 1977
Olympic Stadium
1976 / 1977
H.H.H. Metrodome
1982 / 1982
Mile High Stadium *
1948 / 1993
Dolphin / Hard Rock Stadium *
1987 / 1993

 
Football stadium comparison
Name Location miles from center Top Decks Baseball suitability Base- ball years Reconfiguration Football use Original
cost
Memorial Stadium * Urban
Baltimore
3 N Open 2.1 FAIR (short foul lines, some remote or obstructed-view seats) 38 Retract sections Colts, 1953-1983,
CFL Stallions, 1994-1995,
Ravens, 1996-1997
(Los Angeles)
Memorial Coliseum
Urban
Los Angeles
3 SW Open 1 HORRIBLE (absurdly short left field, many remote seats) 4 TEMPORARY: 1958-1961 Rams, 1946-1979,
Raiders, 1983-1996
Exhibition Stadium Urban
Toronto
1 SW Roof / open 1 MEDIOCRE (many remote seats) 12.5   CFL Argonauts, 1959-1989
Mile High Stadium * Urban
Denver
1 W Open 3.1 GOOD (some remote seats); 1977 expansion was aimed at getting MLB franchise. 2 TEMPORARY: 1993-1994
Move 3-deck section
Broncos, 1960-1999
Dolphin Stadium
(now Hard Rock Stadium) *
Suburban
Miami
14 N Open 2.1 MEDIOCRE (many remote or obstructed-view seats) 11+ Retract sections Dolphins, 1987-
Olympic Stadium Urban
Montreal
4 N Suspended dome 2.1 MEDIOCRE (many remote seats) Astroturf Retract sections CFL Alouettes, 1977-1997* $770 m
H.H.H. Metrodome Downtown
Minneapolis
0 E Inflatable dome 2.1 MEDIOCRE (many remote or obstructed-view seats) Astroturf Retract sections Vikings 1982-2013 $68 m

Generalizations:

See notes at the bottom of this page.


Distinguishing features:
Single deck with no roof (mostly), symmetrical field, straight fences, rudimentary facilities.

Temporary stadiums (full time, not elsewhere classified)


 
a b c d e f
.
Seals Stadium Wrigley Field (L.A.) Colt Stadium Sick's Stadium Jarry Park (Gray = demolished stadiums)

 
Temporary stadium comparison
Name Location miles from center Top Decks Circumstances, features Years in minors Years of MLB use Subsequent use
Seals Stadium Urban
San Francisco
1 SW Open 1 1958 relocation, pending construction of Candlestick Park; Art Deco exterior style 27 2 NONE
Wrigley Field (L.A.) Urban
Los Angeles
3 SSW Roof 2 1961 expansion, pending construction of Dodger Stadium; Clock tower with offices 36 1 NONE
Colt Stadium Suburban
Houston
6 SW Open 1 1962 expansion, pending construction of Astrodome; deep outfield 0 3 NONE
Sick's Stadium Urban
Seattle
3 SE Roof 1 1969 expansion, hoping for new domed stadium (long delay, bankruptcy); very small outfield 31 1 NONE
Jarry Park Urban
Montreal
4 NW Open 1 1969 expansion, hoping for new domed stadium (long delay);
remnant still stands.
0 8 Tennis

Generalizations:

See notes at the bottom of this page.


Distinguishing features:
Predominant use of concrete; oval, circular, or octorad shape; symmetrical field, some luxury suites.

Dual-use "cookie-cutter" stadiums (doughnuts, clones, etc.)


 
a b c d e f g
RFK Stadium * Shea Stadium Astrodome Busch Stadium II Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium * Oakland Coliseum * Jack Murphy Stadium *
Three Rivers Stadium Riverfront Stadium * Veterans Stadium Arlington Stadium Kingdome Rogers Centre (ex-Skydome) Tropicana Field *

 
"Doughnut" stadium comparison
Name Location: City miles from center Top Decks Shape Surface Reconfiguration Football use Original
cost
RFK Stadium * Urban
Washington
3 E Roof 2.1 Circle Grass Rotate 3B side Redskins 1961-1997  
Shea Stadium Suburban
Queens, NY
7 E Roofette 3.1 2/3 circle Grass Rotate both sides Jets 1964-1983 $25.5 m
Astrodome Suburban
Houston, TX
6 SW Dome 3.2 Circle Astroturf Rotate both sides Oilers 1968-1996 $31.6 m
Busch Stadium II Downtown
St. Louis
0 S Roof 2.1 Circle Grass / Astroturf Rotate both sides Cardinals 1966-1987 $55 m
Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium * Urban
Atlanta
1 S Roof 2.1 Circle Grass Shift sections Falcons 1966-1991  
Oakland Coliseum * Urban
Oakland
5 SE Open 3 3/5 circle Grass Shift sections Raiders 1966-1981, 1995-2019 $25.5 m
Jack Murphy Stadium * Suburban
San Diego
6 NE Open 3.1 Octorad Grass Shift sections Chargers 1967-2016  
Three Rivers Stadium Urban
Pittsburgh
1 WNW Roof 2.2 Circle Astroturf Rotate both sides Steelers 1970-2000 $55 m
Riverfront Stadium * Downtown
Cincinnati
0 S Roof 2.1 Circle Astroturf Rotate 3B side Bengals 1970-2000  
Veterans Stadium Urban
Philadelphia
3 S Roofette 2.1 Octorad Astroturf Shift sections Eagles 1971-2002 $45 m
Arlington Stadium Suburban
Arlington, TX
17 W Open 2.1 Circle Grass Rotate 3B side U. of Texas at Arl. until 1980  
Kingdome Urban
Seattle
1 S Dome 3.1 Circle Astroturf Retract sections Seahawks 1976-1999 $67 m
Rogers Centre (ex-Skydome) * Downtown
Toronto
0 S Retractable dome 3.2 Oval Astroturf Rotate both sides CFL Argonauts, 1991-2004; H* $578 m
Tropicana Field * Urban
St. Petersburg, FL
1 W Dome 2.1 Circle Astroturf none NCAA bowl games, 2008- $138 m
+ $70 m

Generalizations:

See notes at the bottom of this page.


Distinguishing features:
Brick & exposed steel beams; asymmetrical fields; many luxury suites.

"Neoclassical / Retro" baseball stadiums (late 20th / early 21st century):


 
a b c d e f
Oriole Park at Camden Yards Globe Life Park * Progressive Field * Coors Field Turner Field * Chase Field *
T-Mobile Park * Oracle Park * Minute Maid Park * Comerica Park PNC Park American Family Field *
Citizens Bank Park Busch Stadium III Citi Field . NOTE: Globe Life Park and Turner Field
were prematurely abandoned by MLB teams.

 
Neoclassical / retro stadium comparison
Name Location: City miles from center Top Decks Features & scenic views Outfield
corners
Change in
capacity
Original
cost
% public
Oriole Park at Camden Yards Downtown
Baltimore
0 W Roofette 3.1 B & O Warehouse 3 -6,000 $235m 96%
Globe Life Park * Suburban
Arlington, TX
17 W Roofette 3.2 Fancy office bldg., pub, restaurant 7 +6,000 $191m 80%
Progressive Field * Downtown
Cleveland
0 S Roofette 3.1 High bleachers, scoreboard
(but pale bricks)
3 -31,000 $173m 88%
Coors Field Downtown
Denver
0 N Roofette 3.1 High bleachers, fountain, scoreboard 3 -26,000 $215m 75%
Turner Field * Urban
Atlanta
1 S Roofette 3.1 Big entry plaza, pub, restaurant curve from LF to RCF, 1 -3,000 $235m 100%
Chase Field * Downtown
Phoenix
0 SE Retractable dome 3.1 Pool, pub, restaurant
(but postmodernist design elements)
6 N/A $355m 71%
T-Mobile Park
(ex-Safeco Field) *
Urban
Seattle
1 S Retractable dome 3.1 Mountain view 4 -12,000 $517m 72%
Oracle Park * Downtown
San Francsico
0 SE Roofette 3.1 San Francisco Bay! 5 -21,000 $306m 5%
Minute Maid Park * Downtown
Houston
0 E Retractable dome 3.1 High bleachers, arches, train 4 * -13,000 $266m 68%
Comerica Park Downtown
Detroit
0 N Roofette 2.2 Upper deck gap, circus in entry plaza, big scoreboard 5 -12,000 $395m ? 63%
American Family Field
(ex-Miller Park) *
Suburban
Milwaukee
3 W Retractable dome 4.1 Huge window (postmodernish), pub, restaurant 7 -10,000 $322m 66%
PNC Park Downtown
Pittsburgh
0 N Roofette 2.1 Awesome view of bridge & skyline 6 -21,000 $228m 70%
Citizens Bank Park Urban
Philadelphia
3 S Roofette 3.3 Upper deck gap, semi-concealed bullpens; center field plaza 5 -19,000 $346m  
Busch Stadium III Downtown
St. Louis
0 S Roofette 4.2 Upper deck gap, center field plaza; view of Gateway Arch. 6 -6,000 ?  
Citi Field Suburban
Queens, NY
7 E Roofette 3.2 Rotunda entrance (based on Ebbets Field), bridge beyond right field. 7 . $700 m .

Generalizations:

See notes at the bottom of this page.


Distinguishing features:
Much glass and shiny exposed metal, slightly asymmetrical field; many luxury suites.

Postmodern baseball stadiums: (New classification)


 
a b c d e f
Great American Ballpark PETCO Park Nationals Park Yankee Stadium II Target Field loanDepot Park *
.
Truist Park * Globe Life Field . .

 
Postmodern stadium comparison
Name Location: City miles from center Top Decks Features Outfield
corners
Change in
capacity
Original
cost
% public
Great American Ballpark Downtown
Cincinnati
0 S Roofette 3.1 Upper deck gap, smokestacks, riverboats 3, arc -11,000 $280m 82%
PETCO Park Downtown
San Diego
0 S Roofette 3.3 Upper deck gap, historic building as LF corner; CF park 10 -24,000 $411m  
Nationals Park Urban
Washington
2 SE Roof 3.3 Upper deck gap, left-center plaza; view of Navy Yard and (barely) U.S. Capitol. 5 -3,000 $620 m 99%
Yankee Stadium II Urban
Bronx, NY
6 NNE Roof 3.2 Three decks, roof facade, curve from LCF to RCF . $900m .
Target Field Downtown
Minneaplis, MN
0 Roof 3.2 boomerang-shaped roof, tan-colored limestone . . $??? m .
loanDepot Park
(ex-Marlins Park) *
Urban
Miami, FL
2 NW Retractable roof 3.1 Pool near center field;
Grass repl. by artif. turf
curve from LF to RCF . $??? m .
Truist Park
(ex-SunTrust Park) *
Suburban
Atlanta, GA
8 N Large roof 3.2 . . $??? m .
Globe Life Field Suburban
Arlington, TX
16 W Retractable roof 4.2 Many levels, high and low;
artificial turf
8 -8,000 $1.2 billion 50%

Generalizations:

NOTES: An asterisk indicates that the name of the stadium changed at least once.
Table values with a yellow green background are exceptionally low, and those with a dark olive background are exceptionally high.
In the "Location" column, "Urban" generally means at least a mile from the city's business district, but no more than five miles away, depending on how big the city is.
In the "Decks" column, decimal quantities refer to the number of skybox levels.
In the "Outfield corners" column, "arc" refers to a long curved fence, and numbers in parentheses refer to abruptly curved bends.
Except for the Neoclassical stadium section, "Original cost" figures are estimates from various sources and are not necessarily comparable. Furthermore, the long-term effects of inflation make it almost impossible to compare dollar figures across many decades.
The "Surface" column pertains to the majority of the stadium's MLB lifetime; see the Turf page for more details.
Items listed under the "Features" column are what distinguish the stadium from others.
To see which team(s) played at each stadium, and when, roll the mouse cursor over the name.

SOURCES: Lowry (1992); ESPN Sports Almanac 1999; Washington Post, Mar. 19, 2003 (data on cost and public sector funding)


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