ALL STAR GAME: 1991 WORLD SERIES: 1992, 1993 ARTIFICIAL TURF: ever since it opened
No snow-covered field here! Built at a cost of $578 million (U.S.), Skydome (as it was called originally, without the definite article the) was incredibly extravagant, especially compared to its humble predecessor ExhibitionStadium a few blocks away along the shore of Lake Ontario. The initial results seemed to justify the enormous investment, however. In each of the first four full years it was in operation (1990-1993), Toronto broke the American League attendance record, exceeding the four million mark in the last three of those years! Spurred by all this fan support, the Blue Jays became serious pennant contenders and won the World Series in 1992 and 1993. Canadians were ecstatic. Given this truly phenomenal success, one would have expected the Skydome to pay off rather quickly, but the financial bottom line in the early years actually showed a net loss.
Although Skydome reeked of "stadium socialism," much of its funding came from private sources, as a large number of Canadian corporations made multi-million dollar investments in exchange for long-term skybox contracts. The CN Tower is the tallest free-standing structure on Earth, and the Skydome-CN Tower complex became one of the most distinctive urban signatures in the world. Those landmarks of the Toronto skyline were featured in the Canadian Gothic vampire television drama series, Forever Knight.
Skydome was the last "hybrid" (i.e. dual-use) stadium ever built. Oddly, it was the first such stadium with a functioning "paired swivelable circular section lower deck" (PSCSLD) design since Riverfront Stadium was built in Cincinnati in 1970. Of all the PSCLD-design stadiums, Rogers Centre's lower deck is unique in two ways: it curves slightly, and it does not meet flush with a small, fixed-position "loge"-level immediately above it. These aspects reflect the fact that the front edges of the grandstand decks conform to a rounded rectangle shape, similar to an "octorad." The perimeter of the stadium is circular, contrary to my earlier conclusion, much like the Superdome. Even including the hotel beyond center field, the structure is at least 50 feet shorter, end-to-end, than Montreal's Olympic Stadium, which had a true oval shape. In terms of height, it was the tallest domed stadium ever built until Miller Park surpassed it in 2001: 330 feet, compared to 310 feet.
The retractable roof is rather ingenious: It consists of four sections of about the same width, two of which slide along parallel rails. The last section, which covers the seats in back of home plate, is moved in a different fashion, rotating 180 degrees along a curved track on the perimeter of the stadium. The need for a support rail for that rotating roof section is why the upper deck on the left side is curved, whereas the upper deck on the right side is straight, allowing for about 15 more rows of seats. It is unclear why they didn't put the permament side of the roof behind home plate, where it would have provided more "natural" shade. That huge dome hanging over center field not only imparts an intimidating effect (like the new football seating section added to Oakland Coliseum in 1996), it also creates a downdraft that prevents many long fly balls from becoming home runs.
The Jumbotron video screen above the restaurant in center field was the largest ever built. The stadium lights are mounted on support beams that are angled inward, to fit inside the roof. (To avoid clutter, they are shown in only one of the diagrams above.) The lights on the right side upper deck are positioned well below the top of the deck, partially obstructing the view of some fans. Rogers Centre is unique in that regard. Although the seating alignment clearly favors baseball over football, the inclusion of two skybox levels pushed the upper deck to stratospheric levels, necessitating an unusually steep "rake" (slope) that apparently induces acrophobia in some fans. Unlike the rest of the seating sections, the lower deck behind the center field fence maintains a consistent circular arc, which is why it tucks beneath the second deck in back of the bullpens. (I'm not sure exactly how it is repositioned for football games.) From the far corners of the upper deck in the outfield, one cannot even see large portions of the playing field, a glaring design defect. Well-heeled fans can check into one of the hotel rooms that faces center field, watching the game from the comfort of their -- bed?? Indiscrete hotel patrons have distracted attention from the game on more than one occasion.
With all the architectural marvels and sundry bells and whistles, it's easy to forget that Rogers Centre's primary function is to serve as a ballpark. As such, it's mediocre, with artificial turf, symmetrical dimensions, and no distinguishing features on the field. The Blue Jays have not fared as well for the last few years, but they still draw at least 20,000 fans to most of their home games. In the 1989 American League playoffs Jose Canseco hit a home run into the upper deck (level five) in left field. Just two weeks before this page was posted for the first time (May 2003), Toronto fell victim to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and players were advised to keep away from fans. To fight fear and bring the fans back, the Blue Jays lowered the ticket price to $1 (Canadian) for one game, and Skydome was virtually sold out for the first time in years. The "375" distance marker in the power alleys has been moved once or twice; that figure is accurate at the bends in the outfield wall.
In January 2005 the Blue Jays' owners, Rogers Communications Inc., announced they were purchasing Skydome, and in February announced the facility would henceforth be named "Rogers Centre." Several renovations began, including replacing the Astroturf with the safer and more natural-looking FieldTurf, and replacing the Jumbotron with newer video displays. Two minor alterations have been made since 2000: there are two new rows of box seats between the dugouts, and one such row extending for about 60 feet beyond the two photographers' areas near first and third bases.
Skydome became the home of the Canadian Football League Toronto Argonauts in 1991. The super-sized CFL gridiron barely fits, and the corners of the northern end zone apparently is "tucked" underneath the centerfield seating sections. For the past few years, the NFL Buffalo Bills have played football here on occasion as well. The NBA expansion franchise Toronto Raptors played their first two seasons in the Skydome, in 1995-96 and 1996-97. A curtain was draped from the roof to create a semblance of intimacy, but it was still absurdly spacious for a basketball arena. This was one of only three stadiums ever to serve as the home field of both a major league baseball team and a professional basketball team.
SOURCES: Pastier (2007), Lowry (2006), Gershman (1993), USA Today / Fodor's (1996), Washington Post, ESPN 1999 Sports Almanac
FAN TIPS: Chris Jackman, Mike Zurawski